EVALUATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF NURSES TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON NURSING CARE DELIVERY IN ENUGU METROPOLIS
(A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA TEACHING HOSPITAL ENUGU, ESUT TEACHING HOSPITAL (PARKLANE) ENUGU, NATIONAL ORTHOPAEDIC HOPISTAL ENUGU, ANNUNCIATION HOSPITAL AND ROYAL HOSPITAL ENUGU).
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of nurses to information technology on nursing care delivery in Enugu. This write up studied knowledge of computer facilities, the level of knowledge of these computer facilities, whether the mentioned computer facilities are used in various places where they work. The relevance of information technology in nursing care delivery and factors hindering the use of ICT in nursing care delivery in Enugu were also studied. Sources of data for this study include library and questionnaire responses. Five health institutions were used, three government, one mission and one privately owned hospitals in Enugu metropolis. Questionnaires were distributed to 100 respondents from the five hospitals. Data collected were analyzed in tables and charts using percentage method or technique. From the research findings it was observed that the awareness about information technology and commonly used computer facilities such as internet and internet communications are high (96% and 94% respectively). The level of knowledge of these commonly used computer facilities among nurses in Enugu are still very low. In internet and internet communications, only 23% and 12% respectively had excellent knowledge while nobody (0%) had excellent knowledge in telenusring. Most of these computer facilities that were assessed are available and are in-use in the five hospitals that were used for this study. The rate of usage of GSM handsets and desktop/Laptop computers were 75% and 70% respectively while 67% and 62% used computer projectors and blood glucose analyzers. Among the five hospitals that were used for this assessment, non of them was found without these computer facilities. The relevance of information technology in nursing care delivery was assessed. Eighty five and seventy four percent (85% and 74%) of the respondents agreed that ICT aids student training, research and also is a good source of information on new diseases and treatment. Concerning faster diagnosis of diseases and easy/faster management of patients, 52% and 56% agreed that computer was an aid to such function. Some factors hindering the use of ICT in nursing care delivery were also identified. Such factors were inaccessibility to ICT facilities (71%), ineffective use of ICT at work place (69%), high cost of hard and software (65%). I hereby recommend continuing education for nurses in the area of ICT. This should be included in the curriculum for training nurses. Nurses should also make personal efforts to acquire ICT knowledge. All nurses should, therefore, be computer literate in order to embrace the information revolution that is going on now in the world.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vii
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Rationale/theoretical framework 2
1.3 Statement of the problem 3
1.4 Purpose of the study 4
1.5 Research questions/hypotheses 5
1.6 Significance of the study 5
1.7 Limitation of the study 7
1.8 Scope of the study 7
1.9 Operational definition of the terms 8
Literature review 10
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 The concept of information technology 14
2.2.1 Health information technology 17
2.2.2 Diffusion of information technology in hospital 22
2.2.3Drivers for adoption of information technology 24
2.2.4 Barriers to adoption of information
technology by hospitals 26
2.2.5 Areas of application of information technology
in health care delivery 28
2.2.6 Nursing informatics 34
2.2.7 Areas of application of information technology
in nursing 35
2.2.8 Specialization in nursing informatics 42
2.2.9 Information technology devices commonly used by nurses 42
2.2.10 Unintended consequences of information
technologies in health care 45
2.2.11 Adverse medical effects of continuous
use of computers 49
2.2.12 Remedies to some of the adverse effects 51
3.1 Materials and methods 52
3.2 Research design 52
3.3 Population of study 53
3.4 Sampling procedure 54
3.5 Instrumentation 56
3.6 Validity of instrument 57
3.7 Reliability of instrument 57
3.8 Data collection procedure 57
3.9 Data analysis techniques 59
Results, analysis and findings 60
4.1 Introduction 60
4.2 Research questions/hypotheses, analysis and results 60
4.3 Discussion of results 72
4.4 Summary of findings 75
Conclusion and recommendations 77
5.1 Introduction 77
5.2 Implications of the study 77
5.3 Recommendations 78
5.4 Suggestions for further studies 79
5.5 Conclusion 80
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Population of Study Table 54
Table 3.2: Sample Size Distribution 56
Table 3.3: Administration of Questionnaire 58
Table 4.1: Educational qualification of the
Table 4.2: Knowledge of the computer facilities 64
Table 4.3: Level of knowledge of these computer
facilities among Nurses in Enugu 65
Table 4.4: Uses of computer facilities in
various establishments 67
Table 4.5: Relevance of these information technology
in nursing care delivery 69
Table 4.6: Factors hindering the use of ICT in
Nursing care delivery 71
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 4.1: Chart Representing gender 60
Fig 4.2: Chart representing age range of
Fig 4.3: Chart representing the ranks of nursing
staff respondents 61
According to advanced learners dictionary of current English 5th edition, information technology is the study or use of electronic processes for storing information and making it available (IT). Information technology has become a vital component in health care delivery.
Flynn (1998) defines information technology or system as an information system that provides procedures to record and make available information, concerning part of an organization, to assist organization related activities.
According to Davis (1999), information technology refers to sending, processing and receiving information through electronic means or computer. It is a flow of some sort of information carrying commodity in some network.
There are no age limit or position limit in studying information technology. In October, 1999, the Guardian newspaper reported that the British prime Minister Tony Blair took his first tentative step into Information technology. He admitted his incompetence in computer usage. He then attended a two-hour computer training session in a shopping center to be instructed in word-processing, e-mail and the internet (Guardian 25 October 1999). There is need for everybody to become computer literate. This is important because the world has now entered the information age.
This study employs the diffusion of innovation theory. It is a socio-psychological theory propounded by clerk Rogers. Diffusion of innovation theory is concerned with the manner in which a new technological ideas, artifact or technique, or a new use of old one, migrates from creation to use. Obviously, this theory has been useful in studies relating to information and communication technology, especially when it concerns the adoption and use of new technologies.
The Diffusion of innovations theory will provide this study with useful framework in explaining how far the Nurses in Enugu have acquired the knowledge of information technology and their attitude towards the application in Nursing care delivery.
1.12STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Science has since reduced the world to a global village. This is the part and function of information technology. It is a common knowledge that information and communication technology (ICT) has come to facilitate and ease interactivity in health care delivery, Nursing diagnoses and treatment of ailments and disease, precision and accuracy in laboratory experiments, medical records keeping and drug preparation, monitoring of patient’s condition among others. Information and communication technology (ICT) is, therefore, vital for efficient discharge of duties in contemporary health institutions. What this means is that Nurses in the contemporary health and health related sectors must be ICT literate and compliance.
Nurses should be familiar with relevant ICT applications in health care delivery.
1.13PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The motivation behind this study are
i. To determine the current levels of knowledge of information and communication technology among Nurses in Enugu.
ii. To determine Nurses understanding of the relevance of ICT to Nursing care delivery.
iii. To ascertain the level of usage of ICT among Nurses in Enugu.
iv. To find out the factors that are hindering the use of ICT among Nurses in Enugu metropolis.
The following research questions will guide this study.
1) What is the level of knowledge of computer facilities among Nurses in Enugu metropolis.
2) What is the attitude of Nurses about the relevance of information technology to Nursing care delivery?
3) What are the current levels of usage of information technology among Nurses in Enugu metropolis?
4) What are the factors militating against Nurses in using information communication technology in Enugu metropolis?
1.15SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The world has witnessed an information revolution, a combination of massive increase in the world’s inventory of information and technical development and means to cope with it. Information technology is the name given to the means of processing and transmitting information.
Information technology is a subject that is very wide. There is hardly no sector of the economy that information technology is not being applied. For example in manufacturing, computers are used to do product design, product packaging. In engineering, computers are used to do different types of designs. In remote sensing and earth observation, satellite is a computer based technology in orbit for data transmission to the ground for interpretation. The world of commerce is far more automated than the actual production of goods. Banking, transportation and distribution of goods are being more transformed by electronics. The world of commerce is information intensive. It is required that information be made available on goods, their prices, their utility and the modern means for paying for those goods. Microcomputers are now widely used in hospitals and medical practice, medical research and medical decision-making. The new technology offers new hope to the deaf, blind and the disabled. Diagnostic tests and laboratory analysis are quicker and easier.
The only thing missing is for the computer to breath-in and breath-out like human being or have blood in the system. In communication for example, facebook, togo websites make vast interlinking possible.
Information technology has revolutionized health practices. All the other professionals in the health industry are hooking-on to information communication technology. It will be disastrous for Nurses if their profession is left out.
1.16LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Among the various factors that contributed negatively towards the smooth conduct of this study is time. Time was a major hindrance towards having an indepth study of this topic. Cost of carrying out the study also constituted a limitation.
1.17SCOPE OF THE STUDY
For the fact that application of information technology in Nursing is very wide, this study limits its scope on the evaluation of knowledge and attitude of Nurses towards the use of information and communication technology in Nursing care delivery in Enugu metropolis.
Some of the reasons for the narrow scope is to reduce cost of carrying the study. Time is another obstacle towards an indepth study of the topic.
1.18OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF THE TERMS
Information: Factors or details that tell you something about a situation, person, events etc.
Technology: Knowledge about scientific or industrial methods or the use of these methods.
Information Technology: The study or the use of electronic processes for storing information and making it available.
Computer: A computer is an automatic, electronic/electromechanical machine that follows instructions stored within it to capture data, store data, process data and display result/information.
Website: Website refers to an organization’s space in the cyber space (network) and it usually contains information about the organization.
IT: Information Technology.
ICT: Information and communication technology.