People over time, have devised various techniques for communicating their thoughts,
needs and desires to others in every aspect of life. The emergence of ICT has affected
all aspects of human life, including education at all levels. ICT knowledge, accessibility
and use are linked with higher efficiency and higher productivity. Undergraduate
nursing students and their teachers occupy a central position in both educational and
health care systems of any country. This study was carried out to investigate the
knowledge, accessibility and use of ICT among students and teachers in the Department
of Nursing Sciences, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus. A descriptive cross
sectional survey design was used. All the 454 undergraduate students in the Department
of Nursing and 23 teachers comprised the subjects for the study. A researcherdeveloped
questionnaire was the instrument for data collection. Data were subjected to
descriptive statistics and anayzed using student’s t-test and Chi square. Probability value
less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Majority of the students 346
(80.5%) and majority of the teachers 20(90.9%) had knowledge of ICT. Respondents
had access to the following ICT: computer; students 314(73.0%), teachers 20 (90.9%),
Internet; students 343(79.8%), teachers 22(100%) and e-mail; students 248(57.7%) and
teachers 17(77.3%). The Internet activities mostly performed by the students were:
browsing 386(89.8%), chatting with friends 274(63.7%) and e-mailing 262(60.9%). The
Internet activities mostly performed by teachers were: browsing 22(100%), e-mailing
20(90.9%) and downloading articles 18(81.8%). Google is the most common search
engine used by students 393(91.4%) and teachers 20(90.9%). High cost of ICT
281(62.2%) and irregular power supply 258(57.1%) were major factors that affect
accessibility to and use of ICT negatively. There was no significant difference (p >
0.05) in the access to ICT types among teachers and students. There was no significant
difference (p > 0.05) in the constraints associated with ICT use among students and
teachers. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the use of ICT between students
and teachers. Findings of this study revealed that there is still need to provide ICT
materials and training at subsidized rate in order to encourage use in university
Background to the Study
People over time have devised various techniques for communicating their thoughts,
needs and desires to others. In early civilized times, people achieved adequate
communication through speech and written messages. Communication in teaching and
learning situation were mainly done using a teacher-centered education system in the
past few years (Adeyinka, Adedeji, Majekodunmi, Adika & Adeyinka, 2011) when the
conventional way of teaching was the order of the day. The teacher was seen as the sole
source of knowledge and the students were “mere receipients” of his/her information.
Chalk and talk methods were used in delivering lectures to students and pupils in
The emergence of information communication technology (ICT) has affected all aspects
of life (Nadira, Kamal & Banu, 2010). ICT has become an indispensable part of our
contemporary world. No wonder the use of such terms as e-nursing, e-commerce, ebanking,
e-medicine, e-government, e-learning and e-education just to mention but a
few, to show how such aspects of life revolve round technology. ICT materials are
adapted to carry out some routine activities in almost every aspect of life.
ICT includes any equipment or interconnect system of equipment that is used in the
automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display,
switching, interchange, transmission or reception of data or information resources
(National Information Technology Policy, 2010). This policy equally sees ICT as
computers, ancillary equipment, software and firmware (Hardware) and similar
procedures, services (including support services) and related resources. To the Federal
Ministry of Education (2010) ICT means all equipment, tools (inclusive of traditional
technologies of radio, video and television to the newer technologies of computers,
hardware, firmware, etc) as well as the methods, practices, processes, procedures,
concepts and principles that come into play in the conduct of the information
Globally, the emergence of ICT has stimulated rapid development in all sectors of the
economy, especially in the socio-cultural and political spheres of life (Akanbi, 2005, in
Olatokun, 2009). Ajayi (2003) noted that ICT is redefining the way almost everything
is done and is a ready tool for all strata of the society. Danner (2013) stated that ICT has
transformed the world into a large global connected community and play an
increasingly important role in people’s lives. Previous studies like those of (Idowu,
Cornford & Bastin, 2008) and (kambi, 2005) have highlighted advantages and
disadvantages that nations, institutions and industrial sectors would face if they did not
position themselves to harness and implement ICTs as tools for leveraging their
activities in the emerging global economy.
In educational sector, ICT has been continuously linked to higher efficiency, higher
productivity, and higher educational outcomes, including quality of cognitive, creative
and innovative outcomes (Adeosun, 2010). ICT is often perceived as a catalyst for
change, change in learning approaches and in access to information (Watson, 2005) and
can help by providing alternative possibilities for education (Casal, 2007, in Danner
2013). For both social and economic reasons students will need computer and
communication technology skills to live successfully in a knowledge-based society
The knowledge, access and use of ICT are becoming integral part of education in many
parts of the globe (Ololube, 2006). To Danner (2013) education is the first and best key
area for ICT application. Use of different ICT has become inevitable for students in
learning. By using modern ICT, students and teachers can retrieve required information
within a short time. Use of ICT has the potential to become cost-effective as it offers
greater flexibility regarding time and location of teaching and learning, (UNESCO
2003). ICT also provides greater flexibility to adapt teaching and learning to meet the
learners’ cognitive and learning styles. ICT offers the learners the opportunity to work
at their own pace. Betts (2011) affirmed that ICT can enhance the quality of learning
where its use is tailored to lesson objectives and the needs of the learners. The use of
ICT in teaching is a relevant and functional way of providing education to learners that
will assist in imbibing in them the required capacity for the world of work. Very few
jobs today do not require the use of skills in technology, collaboration, teamwork and
information, all these can be acquired through teaching and learning with technology.
ICT fundamentally changes the way we live, learn and work.
On the other hand, there are documented hindrances to using ICT in spite of its
numerous benefits to both teachers and students. The factors hindering both teachers’
and students’ readiness and confidence in using ICT include teacher’s lack of expertise
with ICT, lack of confidence in using ICT by both teachers and students. Other factors
include; insufficient knowledge of appropriate software and insufficient knowledge and
skills on how to use ICT equipment, lack of knowledge of how to evaluate the use and
the role played by ICT in teaching and learning is also another factor hindering use of
ICT by both teachers and students (UNESCO, 2012).
Ofodu, 2007 in (Ajayi, Ekundayo & Haastrup, 2009) enumerated ICT tools used by
both teachers and students to include; computers specifically; internet, telephone, digital
camera, and overhead projector. Other ICT materials include; compact disc-read only
memory (CD-ROM), teleconferencing, audio-cassette tapes and video tapes, interactive
television, electronic board, optical fibres, electronic notice board, slides, radio among
Teachers and students turn to ICT for various reasons such as removing distance from
education and making knowledge more accessible to all. Development of a lifelong
learning culture and the capacity to empower learners by providing them with multiple
pathways that offer choices and channels to meet their education and training needs
(UNESCO, 2003) is another reason why people use ICT. ICT is cost-effective as it
offers greater flexibility regarding time and location of training delivery. ICT also
provides greater flexibility to adapt teaching and learning to meet learners’ cognitive
and learning styles.
Teachers and nursing students have the obligation to know, access and use various
instructional aids including modern ICT tools during their course of teaching and
learning. This is because ICT is redefining the way almost everything is done and is a
ready tool for all strata of society including education. ICT is changing the way
people teach and learn, thereby offering new alternatives to the traditional classroom
methods of teaching and learning. Teachers and students who are unaware of existing
ICT may lose an important opportunity to make use of the positive features (cheap, safe,
effective and accessible) of ICT as well as teach and learn accordingly. Teachers and
students may not be able to harness all the benefits of ICT in Nigeria. Ofodu (2007)
noted that Nigeria is a nation with constant power outage and poor infrastructural
material supply in every stratum; her institutions of learning are not exempted as well.
There may be lack of general information, access or misinformation about ICT used by
both teachers and students during teaching and learning.
The knowledge, access and use of ICT during teaching and learning of nursing sciences
are unknown. Studies carried out in Nigeria on ICT use were among the Reproductive
Health Workers (Wole &Olufunke, 2009), ICT use in Nigerian Secondary Schools
(Ajayi, Ekundayo & Haastrup, 2009). Adetimirin (2012), ICT literacy among
undergraduates in Nigerian universities and Wole & Olufunke, (2009), provided
information on Information on ICT use among Reproductive Health Care Workers
(RHWs). The present study was conceived based on the fact that to the researcher’s best
knowledge there has not been any study done on ICT knowledge, access and use among
teachers and students in the Department of Nursing Sciences, University of Nigeria
Enugu Campus (UNEC).
Statement of problem
The National Policy on ICT in Education and Framework launched in 2010 presents a
holistic and broad vision for ICT integration in the education sector in Nigeria. This
policy moves beyond a basic technology literacy approach. Rather, the policy focuses
on leveraging technology to transform the roles of the teacher and the learner in the
In developed countries, the use of ICT by teachers and students in education has been
widely studied and documented especially the positive influence of ICT in education
(Kay, 2006; Mur-ray, Nuttall & Mitchell, 2008). Studies have also been conducted on
the use of ICT by teachers and students in teaching and learning in developed countries
where the use of ICT has advanced, and where there are resources and materials to
maintain them (Adeyinka, Adedeji, Majekodunmi, Adika & Adeyinka,2011).
Very few studies have been carried out in Nigeria on the use of ICT in education
(Ololube, 2006). These studies were limited to attitude and competence in the use of
computers by academic and non-academic staff in Nigerian higher institutions.
Unfortunately there were limited documented studies on knowledge, accessibility and
use of ICT in education generally in Nigeria, and none was found in relation to nurse
educators’ and student nurses’ knowledge, accessibility and use of ICT in Nursing
However, the researcher observed that some undergraduate nursing students find it
difficult to use ICT resources on their own to carry out basic learning activities such as
sending e-mails, presentation of seminars and on-line registration of their courses.
Equally, the researcher observed that both undergraduate and postgraduate research
works are supervised mostly via use of paper and pencil materials as against how the
researcher’s friend who studies in Southern Africa is being supervised on-line.
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to investigate students’ and teachers’ knowledge,
accessibility and use of ICT in the Department of Nursing Sciences, University of
Nigeria, Enugu Campus.
Objectives of the Study
The specific objectives of this study were to:
1. Ascertain students’ and teachers’ knowledge of ICT in Department of
2. Determine accessibility to ICT among nursing students and teachers of
Department of Nursing UNEC.
3. Investigate students’ and teachers’ use of ICT Department of Nursing
4, To determine the constraining factors to use of ICT as perceived by
students and teachers.
1. There is no significant difference in the knowledge of ICT between students and
2. There is no significant difference in the use of different ICT types among
students at different level of study.
3. There is no significant difference in the use of preferred ICT types among male
and female students.
4. There is no significant difference in the accessibility to ICT use between the
students and the teachers.
5. There is no significant difference in the constraints associated with ICT use
between the students and the teachers.
6. There is no significant difference in the use of ICT between the students and the
Significance of the Study
The findings will reveal whether both teachers and students actually understand what
ICT means, whether they have access to ICT and also to what use they put ICT tools.
This will help in academic decisions and review of teaching and learning process where
necessary. Teachers will utilize the information from the study to plan teaching-learning
activities to include softwares, hardwares and programmes to make teaching and
learning easier, faster and learner centered. The findings will as well provide data for
student’s and teacher’s individual decision making.
To the authorities; especially Departmental and the University administrators, the
findings will serve as a guide to design appropriate in-service training programmes to
update teacher’s skills in ICT as well as integrating ICT into curriculum for students; to
enhance their knowledge and use of ICT in relation to teaching and learning. To the
stakeholders, it will give them insight on the activities of the Department in terms of
ICT in the Department and plan programmes according to determined needs.
The findings of the present study is hoped to provide base line knowledge in this area
and also fill the gap in the literature.
Scope of the Study
The study is delimited to determining the knowledge, access and use of ICT. It is also
delimited to undergraduate students and teaching staff of the Department of Nursing
Sciences, University Nigeria Enugu Campus.
Operational Definition of Terms
1. Information Communication Technology (ICT): Refers to hardwares, softwares
and programmes that affect academic and non-academic activities of both students
2. ICT knowledge: This refers to the undergraduate students and teachers ability to
identify correctly the types and benefits of ICT. ICT knowledge also means ability
to possess formal information about ICT.
3. ICT Accessibility: Accessibility to ICT in this study refers to students’ and
teachers’ ability to possess or hire ICT materials and willingness and capacity to
take advantage of the available ICT services.
ICT accessibility is measured by items 14 -21 in the accessibility subscale of
Information Communication Technology questionnaire (AICTQ).
4. ICT use: Refers to performing academic and non-academic activities using ICT.
ICT use is measured by items 22 – 32 in the use subscale of Information
Communication Technology questionnaire (UICTQ).